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In addition to EBFM, there is a need to decrease fishing capacity worldwide and to recognize the deleterious effects of subsidies (Munro and Sumaila, 2002).
Capacity reductions should be undertaken by both developed and developing countries, although it seems easier in developed countries due to governmental support and because alternatives are available (Jennings et al., 2001).
A 50% reduction in effort for lobster fisheries would not produce significant changes in lobster biomass; a reduction in effort to the 1978 level (f[sub MSY]) would lead to biomass recovery. One of the primary reasons for this condition is the race for fish caused by open access to fishing resources. Hardin pointed out the consequences of open access systems, and made suggestions about how to avert the resulting impact by the race for the resource (Hardin, 1968).
The instability of institutions responsible for fisheries management in Brazil has had a deleterious impact on the resources. Factors contributing to the crisis of fisheries include human population growth, increasing consumption rates, stronger disparities in access to resources, prevalence of individualism, materialism and competition, higher speed in the development and adoption of new technologies, and broader and more unpredictable impacts of those technologies (Burger et al., 2001).
Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iv List of tables vii List of figures viii List of appendices x Acknowledgements xi CHAPTER 1. Historical perspective of the worldfisheries 2 1.2. Besides zoning of the oceans and the use of input/output controls, there remains a need to recognize fisheries as embedded in ecosystems. Schaefer presented an ideal fishery research program with three priority levels of research (Smith, 1994): • Level I (high priority) - intensity of fishing, selectivity of the fishing method, yield, size composition by age and sex for both catch and biomass, biomass distribution and its availability to fishery, and rate of population growth; • Level II (medium priority) - reproduction, growth, and natural mortality; • Level III (low priority) - environmental forces, competition, and predation (Schaefer, 1956). The other levels should be addressed through long-term research.
The reconstruction of catch time series was based on landings from national yearbooks, and from ICCAT and FAO's databases (1978-2000), allowing for the detection of 'fishing down the food web' in northeastern Brazil. World total catch increased 6% per year from 1950 to 1970, and 2% per year from 1970 to 1990 (FAO, 2000). Programa de Avaliacao do Potencial Sustentavel dos Recursos Vivos da Zona Economica Exclusiva SCORE-NE, Recife: 138 p.
The simulation of optimum fishing policies led to a diverse fleet when ecosystem health was emphasized. Fish landings have likely been declining since 1988, a trend disguised by over-reporting of Chinese catches (Watson and Pauly, 2001).
If the main objective was economic or social (or a combination of both and ecosystem health), manual collection of coastal resources, and demersal industrial fisheries could be boosted, while the lobster and longline fisheries should be phased out. Thus, there is enough evidence to proceed with a "regime shift in fisheries management" (borrowing the terminology from Steele, 1996).
This negative impact is expected to increase due to the current split of responsibility between two institutions with diverse agendas. Instead, extension of jurisdiction must be used together with input controls, output controls, and/or technical measures embedded in a sound fishery management policy, with clear objectives, in order to be effective. On crafting a fisheries co-management arrangement in the estuary of Patos Lagoon (Brazil): opportunities and challenges faced through implementation.
An improvement in the collection system of catch statistics is recommended, which would consider a standardized set of common names, as well as gathering information on biological, economic, and social components of this ecosystem and its fisheries. Several international agreements have been established and international commissions have been created to deal with the issue of managing migratory stocks. Schaefer recognized the importance of all three levels to fishery management, he also called attention to the high priority of only the first level, as it was sufficient to evaluate if higher yields would result after reductions in fishing effort.